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Research and developed by Sarah (Steve) Mosko, Ph.D.
Updated Nov. 2004. For references click here.

Bisphenol-A is a building block of polycarbonate containers (e.g. 5-gallon water bottles, baby bottles and dishware) and is known to have estrogenic activity (including in assays of human breast cancer cells).(45) Studies from the Consumers' Union, U.S. FDA and Japanese researchers have shown that Bisphenol-A migrates out of baby bottles and dishware under various conditions.(8) It also migrates into the contents of polycarbonate water bottles.(9) Bisphenol-A detection is widespread in human urine samples.(37,81) There is also clear evidence for significant early prenatal exposure.(82)

  • Bisphenol-A also has been found migrating into the contents of various food and infant formula cans that are lined with a plastic lacquer.(35, 36)
  • A recent study in mice found that short-term exposure to Bisphenol-A near or below levels thought to be safe produced abnormal oocytes (the eggs produced by the female).(9) The mice were exposed accidentally when Bisphenol-A migrated from their drinking water bottles. The abnormality, called aneuploidy, means that the oocyte received the wrong number of chromosomes during cell division. Aneuploidy is an important cause of birth defects in humans, including Down's Syndrome, mental retardation and miscarriage.
  • Bisphenol-A is also implicated in a variety of other adverse effects, including on prostate tumors, sperm count and sexual development (see ref. 57 & also
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